Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end

Public health ethics is on the map. In the past year, bioethicists and public health practitioners have begun to focus their critical attention on this complex and understudied topic. Much remains to be done. Childress et al. (2002), for example, describe their account of public health ethics as a rough conceptual map of a terrain with undefined boundaries.

Our focus will be on the responsibilities of epidemiologists, a choice made for several compelling reasons. Epidemiology sits at the center of the science and practice of environmental health, and more generally, at the center of public health. Although it is often referred to as a basic science of public health, epidemiology connects the acquisition of scientific knowledge with its application in preventive interventions, programs, and policies. This connection suggests a fundamental question: What are our responsibilities as epidemiologists? Do we, for example, have a joint responsibility to participate in science and to apply the knowledge gained? This is a key concern for us as researchers, health professionals, and as teachers.

The social responsibility of public health professionals is but one of many concerns in the broader picture of public health ethics. It is nevertheless a central concern. As Ogletree (1996) reminds us, responsibility is a concept particularly well suited to flame many key aspects of the ethics of professions faced with making decisions and taking actions in complex situations. These decisions often involve advanced technologies, high levels of specialization, and overlapping areas of expertise and concern among decision makers from diverse educational, political, and social backgrounds, precisely the situation in contemporary epidemiology and public health. In sum, responsibility organizes many (although not all) of public health’s ethical issues in terms appropriate for professional practitioners.

Responsibility has a deeper meaning as well, corresponding to commitment. To be responsible means to be committed to someone or to some thing. Being responsible in this deeper sense involves a commitment to positive action, to the pursuit and achievement of something of value, such as a social good (Jonas 1984). We will return to the notion of social goods in public health. For now, we want to emphasize that responsibility focuses attention on professional commitments

Finally, our inquiry is intended to assist all public health researchers who seek to define their social responsibilities. For those who are involved primarily in environmental health research, we can think of at least two connected and current topics–environmental justice and community-based participatory research.

A greenhouse is basically a structure that has been designed to capture and retain the heat from the sun. It is used to grow plants when the climate does not want to cooperate. Greenhouses can be used in a number of science fair projects and can be used to test concepts from a variety of fields of sciences including engineering, physics, botany and biology.

Project #1 Capturing Heat Energy

In this project the students will be designing a greenhouse that captures heat energy from multiple sources. They will be capturing heat energy from the sun and geothermal heat energy from the ground. This project will require the student to learn about heat extraction techniques related to solar energy and geothermal energy.

Sample hypotheses that can be tested with this project include:
(1) The thickness of the plastic used for enclosing the greenhouse impacts the amount of heat conservation in the greenhouse;
(2) The opaqueness of the material used for enclosing the greenhouse impacts the amount of heat conservation in the greenhouse;
(3) The depth of the insulation on the floor of the greenhouse impacts the amount of geothermal heat conservation in the greenhouse.

Project #2 Growing Radishes

In this project the student will build a greenhouse so that they can grow radishes and conduct experiments on the radish plants during times of the year that are not normally conducive to gardening. Radish projects can look at a number of things. For example, students can try to cross pollinate radishes with another root vegetable like carrots, they can attempt to grow radishes in sand or they can try to manipulate the size of the radish by exposing the plant to 20 hours of light per day.

Project #3 Engineering Greenhouses

For students that are interested in engineering, greenhouse science fair projects can be developed with an engineering focus. For example, students can try to develop a greenhouse using nothing but materials that are normally thrown out or recycled, such as cans, bottles and plastic containers. Students will not only need to design and build their greenhouse, but they will also need to test the effectiveness their greenhouse has in regards to collecting and conserving heat energy.

Project #4 Studying Solar Energy Applications

The final project option will be an application project. Students will be learning about solar energy and how to use this knowledge to harness the suns energy to heat a greenhouse. For this project students will design and build a greenhouse that maximizes the energy delivered by the sun. A good approach for this project is to see if their design can magnify solar energy within the greenhouse to make it effective in cold weather.

If you want to get a BS degree in computer science, you will need to complete approximately four years of schoolingthe same as for any bachelors degree. There are different types of schools that offer these computer degrees, ranging from online schools to technical schools to traditional campus-based universities. Whether you choose a traditional four-year college or an alternative program, your information technology coursework will include most of the same materials.

If you want to get a BS degree in computer science, you will need to complete approximately four years of schoolingthe same as for any bachelors degree. There are different types of schools that offer these computer degrees, ranging from online schools to technical schools to traditional campus-based universities. Whether you choose a traditional four-year college or an alternative program, your information technology coursework will include most of the same materials.

When you begin a computer science program, the first semester or two will be spent on the basic introductory courses. This might include computer history, basic terminology, and some other science-related course like calculus and chemistry. This is the point that students often decide which direction they want to take their computer science degree, which could range from programming to networking to computer repair and building. Programming is probably the most popular choice these days, though.

Once you have finished the basic courses and decide on the area you want to specialize in, you can start taking more specific courses. If you want to go into programming, for example, you can start taking fundamental courses in BASIC, FORTRAN and COBOL before more advanced courses on topics such as programming languages like C++ and PASCAL. Or, if you want to go into networking, you will begin taking courses that concentrate on networking systems like Novell and Microsoft Networks.

In most cases, a bachelors degree in computer science or information will involve some sort of final project. The computer and information technology program curriculum may vary from one school to the next, however, and it will also vary greatly depending on the degree you are going after. If you are getting a certificate or an associates degree, you might just focus on one very specific area or get a more basic overview of things. And, if you are getting a masters degree, the learning will be much more in-depth for your specific area of specialization. You can learn more about the program curriculum at various schools by visiting their web sites or speaking to a counselor there.

Find the perfect Computer And Information Technology School today and start your path to a rewarding career.

Online Hotel Booking Software
These days with heavy use of Internet and online reservation system in place booking rooms in hotels and motels has become much easier. ASP.Net development is a process used for several applications supporting online reservation system. They develop a site which provides with varied listings for availability of hotel rooms. Users of the site can search hotel by star ratings, as per geographic location etc. You can also find Google Location Map for each of its hotel. These facilities are available because the website has Dynamic Page development facility plus SQL server to support at its back-end. As a user you would receive a booking confirmation fax to the hotel along with guest details as well as a similar copy to the guest through an email. It is supported by AJAX which serves as a user friendly interface. Related technologies used here are ASP Development, Microsoft SQL server 2000, Javascript, Visual basic 6.0, XML and XSLT.

Creating an Online community beneficial for holiday home owners
There is a huge online virtual community exists which has its members taking part in membership formalities. It becomes a common medium for people all around the world crossing all geographic as well as political boundaries for social networking.

The online community of ASP developers has developed a group for holiday home owners to pay local rent securely. The developed software includes a variety of functions as SEO friendly contact management system, document management system, integrating graphic design, multi featured property database, email marketing system for sending out and tracking email as well as newsletters, guest book, banner ads manager etc. ASP 3.0 and SQL server 2005 are its linked technologies.

Helpful in Customer Resource Management
Customer resource management is the most significant and precious resource management in any organization. Customers receive a very special treatment. A single satisfied customer brings in more customers with a word of mouth which finally adds to the growth and profitability of the organization.

ASP developers develop an application worth satisfying customer resource management for an organization. Those into the call center business get this application developed. It has a registration system which assigns service calls to customers that concerns the authority for its resolution. The system is helpful in complete tracking of customer complaints. ASP development, HTML, MS-SQL server 2008, javascript, Ajax and CSS are its related technologies.

At last, avail tons of benefits associated with asp development and its related technologies for your business needs.

For somebody who’s a techie, 4G is something you ought to already be familiar with. However, if you’re not one of those who’s fond of electronic gadgets, you should know that there’s more to 4G than meets the eye.

4G is commonly referred to as beyond 3G, a fourth generation wireless technology equipped with a more comprehensive and secured Internet Protocol. It is well-known to provide users with higher speed and better quality anytime, anywhere. It’s packed with better features compared to its predecessors.

Contrary to what others may suppose, 4G is not limited to mobile phones alone but also in computers. If you’re someone who’s fond of watching videos online, you’ll find that 4G provides high definition videos regardless of your whereabouts. You can surf the World Wide Web faster using any web-enabled devices you have by connecting them to the 4G modem. You can chat with your friends faster, hear their voices clearer and monitor their cams with no pauses and disruptions. You can also share pictures and videos without too much hassle. In case you’re going out, you can still use your mobile to surf the net with 4G mobile technology.

So why is 4G highly regarded than 3G or other types of mobile phone network? We are living in a high-tech world where additional technological innovations are discovered almost everyday. 4G happens to be one of the most advanced and recent mobile phone networks in today’s age. It is the network of choice by many since it is very accessible. It also has a very high data rate amounting to 100 Mbps and a very extensive bandwidth capacity which added networks fail to provide.

There are pitfalls though. The main one is that as a cutting edge technology there is likely to be very few places that actually have a 4G network in position.

Chances are it is used first in highly urbanized areas before it spreads out to rural areas. To remedy this problem, various companies set 4G hotspot areas where users can go to and use it free of charge. In some cases, there are computers which aren’t applicable with 4G since it’s engineered for Windows.

Today, almost all kinds of cell phones are suitable for 4G. Nevertheless, many techies believe that smart phones are the best because of their quality digital cameras. Others use T-mobile and iPhones which are likewise 4G compatible devices. Another concern will be the price. You can have these gadgets with or without 4G contract. A device with a 4G contract is cheaper with price starting at 199 to 299 US Dollars while those without a contract can cost you 599 to 699 US Dollars.

Switching to 4G is a good option you can make especially if you’re someone who’s into the latest technological craze and doesn’t want to be left behind. With so many features it offers, 4G is certain to change the way you look at technology.

If you are considering enrolling on a health Sciences PhD, why not take a close look at the health sciences PhD offered by us at the Faculty of health Sciences at the University of Southampton in Hampshire, England.

Our MPhil/PhD doctorate is designed for all healthcare professionals who wish to undertake research at the highest level. Initially, all students enrol on the MPhil. Then, students wishing to study for a PhD will undergo a process to upgrade at an appropriate point.

The full course takes three to four years to complete full time, and between four and seven years to complete part time. This PhD health sciences programme is especially suitable for nurses, midwives, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, podiatrists, health scientists and social scientists.

Research areas on the PhD health sciences programme are: cancer, palliative and end of life care; organisation and delivery of care; and rehabilitation and health technologies.

Our primary aim is to enhance your skills as a researcher to the optimum level. As a successful health sciences PhD graduate, you will be a suitable candidate for a wide range of research posts in both academia and industry.

At Health Sciences we have a proud tradition for undertaking ground breaking research that regularly attracts international recognition. In the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise we were rated as one of the top two research universities in the UK.

This PhD health sciences course gives you the opportunity to make your own original contribution to the world’s body of scientific knowledge. What is more, the programme also enables your development of key transferable skills, including public speaking, presentation writing, writing proposals, specialist knowledge and maturity.

If you would like to discover more information about this PhD health sciences programme from the University of Southampton, all you have to do is visit the Faculty of Health Sciences website.

The rush of improved tutors evidently shows that stress for proper guidance on the subject is sky high but there are few excellence tuition centers available for the scholars. Under the circumstances online computers discipline can be helpful for students in given that them with the a great deal desirable help to Computer science Assignment Help on time.

Among the net teaching center online tutoring is of greatest options that are able to approach handy for students all above the globe. The association is helping students with range of reimbursement in abundance of subjects. Be it Computer science Assignment Help or homework help on the study of computers, you can obtain all the best ends in all of these subjects with appropriate help from the middle. There are abundance of skilled educators who are there to assist students 24×7 with all their knowledge and modern methods of teaching. Students can speak to them essentially and obtain much desired help in any type of computer related subjects.

Although in mainly of the cases students believe these deal and they get benefit with it as well. There are plenty of instance of victorious students who complete it to the top with guidance from this organization. Thus, Computer science Assignment Help from the association is a huge possibility for user to flourish well in their career.

There are numerous streams in computer studies like hardware, program, networking and others and you can obtain good online tutoring in all of these subjects. Like in the occasion you need to obtain project assist from The Global Tutors, and then you need to choose your subjects first. Moreover, you be able to obtain numerous other forms of Homework Help and additional helps here. At the center you can obtain help on Programming Languages, Database management method, Operating Method and others. What is suitable with tuition from this online middle is that students do not have to visit coaching centers actually with that. The opposite, they can obtain all essential helps lacking leaving the reassure of home.

You resolve not very find someone without basic information on computers in current context. Even in small towns and villages, makes utilize of these modern tools are on the rise. However, that does not denote that everybody is a specialized in the subject. Computer science is a enormous study with numerous streams under it. Students on the subject may occasionally find it firm to inclusive all assignments on programmed time. There comes the requirement of tuition centers.

April 21, 2021

The social science dictionary has an approach to concentrate on a wider discipline of Education, History, Politics and all the studies related to social science. The dictionarys glossary will enable the search criteria easier to find the exact information that a person is looking for. It has the definitions of basic concepts and branches through the divisions in social science. The branches again take you to the related definitions and keywords used in the social science.

The social science is a concept which is wider than the concept of sociology. The dictionary on social science includes the meaning of all the disciplines that come under this field. So, at a single glance this is useful dictionary for various people in the various categories under one topic, Social science. The terms that date from the older centuries and those that are used in common nowadays are included in the social dictionary.

Economy, History, Politics, Education, Psychology and Sociology is all what is covered in this dictionary. The analysis made on the terms and definition in this social science dictionary is the work of the experts, their knowledge on things and their experience. This dictionary makes the job of the users who rely upon it. It just has it source from various renowned and authorized sites with useful and appropriate information. All you need to do is to explore the concepts, look up for the terms that you came into search for, the phrases and terminologies that you like to learn and get ideas about them in this social science dictionary.

The economics and the political science are the most common sites where people come in search of key words and definitions. The economics has further more splits like BEA economy, environmental economy and so on. The political science has the terms that are used in National and international level pf politics and those used in the Parliament generally. People preparing themselves for civic exams can very well refer this dictionary and get the at most benefit of this. It has all the concepts starting from secretarial level to chief administrators in the government. The terms and designation given to people in various level of the cabinet can also be learnt in this dictionary.

The education section in social science dictionary covers the details on the latest technology available in todays learning world. In all these criteria and divisions of the dictionary are glossaries which help the searching very easy and creates a comfort level to navigate through the desired pages of search. So, the online dictionary on social science is more useful to provide variety of learning terminologies which again is a reference catalog for various age groups starting from kids to students in higher classes and to those who are in verge of jumping into the field of politics. With all these essential stuffs available on Social science, make the best use of the dictionary and learn the various lines of social science. Happy learning!

These days there is there is a lot buzz about the world going green and preserving the environment. Well, I think that all of you might be reading something or the other about “environment and ecology” in newspaper, magazines or over the internet. So, let me throw light on this topic.

Environmental Science is the scientific study of the ways in which biological, physical and chemical components of the environment interact and the relations between them. Environmental science and ecology are overlapped but different science disciplines.

Environmental science and ecology are overlapped but different science disciplines. Ecology is the study of the interactions of living organisms with their environments, including relationship with other organisms. Environmental science is multidisciplinary in nature and provides a broad area of study of environmental systems integrating both biological and physical concepts with an interdisciplinary approach.

Components of Environmental Science:

Atmospheric Sciences examine the phenomenology of the Earth’s gaseous outer layer with emphasis upon interrelation to other systems. Atmospheric sciences comprise meteorological studies, greenhouse gas phenomena, and atmospheric dispersion modeling of airborne contaminants, noise pollution, and even light pollution.

Ecology studies typically analyze the dynamics of biological populations and some aspect of their environment.

Due to the interdisciplinary nature of environmental science, teams of professionals commonly work together to conduct environmental research or to produce Environmental Impact Statements. Environmental science encompasses issues such as climate change, conservation, biodiversity, water quality, groundwater contamination, soil contamination, and use of natural resources, waste management, sustainable development, disaster reduction, air pollution, and noise pollution.

Geosciences include environmental geology, environmental soil science, volcanic phenomena and evolution of the Earth’s crust. In some classification systems it can also embrace hydrology including oceanography.

Well, above is a brief overview about Environmental Science and its’ machinery. Having a sound knowledge about our environment will certainly help us to protect Nature, which is the “Gift of God” to mankind.

Thanks to a growing body of research, scientists are now recognizing that having more stem cells in ones bloodstream could be one of the greatest strategies for optimal health. For example, a number of recent studies have shown that a greater number of circulating stem cells equated to greater cardiovascular health.

Lets look at some of these studies in a little more detail so you can grasp the potential benefits of supporting your bodys natural release of stem cells into the bloodstream

In 2001, Vasa et al reported that compared to healthy individuals, people with cardiovascular problems had fewer endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in their bloodstream. EPCs are a type of stem cells responsible for the development of new blood vessels. The study also demonstrated that the EPCs isolated from people with cardiovascular problems showed less ability to migrate in tissues. The Vasa group also reported that smokers had fewer EPCs in their blood.

In 2004 Schmidt-Lucke et al measured the number of EPCs in the bloodstream of 120 individuals (43 controls and 77 individuals at risk for cardiovascular problems) and observed these individuals for ten months. At the end of this time, the authors reported that a reduced number of circulating EPCs was linked to a poor cardiovascular health prognosis.

The next year, in a similar but more extensive study, Werner et al measured the number of EPCs in the bloodstream of 19 individuals, and observed these individuals for one year. Overall, the people with more circulating EPCs experienced fewer cardiovascular problems and, conversely, the people who had fewer EPCs in their blood showed increased incidences of cardiovascular events.

Thanks to recent studies, scientists now understand why greater numbers of stem cells in the bloodstream equate to better cardiovascular health. In essence, when a tissue has poor blood circulation, it lacks oxygen. And when a tissue lacks oxygen, it releases compounds that accomplish two specific tasks: 1) attraction of EPCs into the tissue, and 2) conversion of EPCs into capillary cells. Therefore, whenever a tissue is lacking oxygen, a process is triggered whereby circulating stem cells migrate to the tissue and contribute to the development of new capillaries. This leads to greater delivery of oxygen and nutrients, thereby helping the tissue maintain better health.

When we understand that poor oxygen and insufficient nutrient delivery to organs and tissues are two of the most common underlying causes for a wide variety of health problems, it is clear that increasing the number of circulating stem cells becomes one of the most valuable strategies for maintaining optimal health.

Disclaimer: This article is for educational purposes only and does not constitute medical advice. The opinions expressed herein are those of the author and any products mentioned, while supported by science, are not intended to diagnose, mitigate or treat any disease or illness.

For information on supporting your bodys natural ability to release stem cells, and to take advantage of financial opportunities in this exciting arena, visit: